The Universal Definition of Political Cartoon

1. Introduction
People and politics could be defined in economic terms of demand and supply or cause and effect. Politics obtain the powers that control national organisations by the people who want to develop their ground of lives. The public want to appear their opinion about politics. Politics comment on a variety of methods, such as music, movie, speeches, and cartoons. Political cartooning is one of the ways to convey the public's desire. However, political cartoons may be a sensitive issue, because it depends on situation of cartoonists and agreement by the public. The aim of this report is to examine the key a universal definition associated with the term political cartoon, also describe reasons and examples about the definition.

2. Discussion of Political Cartoon
2.1 Composition
Political cartoons are different from general cartoons. Typically, political cartoons are composed of two aspects, which are caricature and allusion. According to Backer (1996, para. 1), caricature is individual parodies and allusion is creations of the situation or context of the placement of the individual. These aspects are shown by simple illustration and short sentences usually to express strongly. Backer (1996, para. 1) also defines that political cartoons were the "fanciful exercises" in the past. It could be before did not appear the power of the political cartoons.

2.2 History
In Germany, the political cartoon was started by Martin Luther under the influence of Catholic Church. "As time went on, Germanic art assimilated the Italian caricature and established the conventions practised on a wide basis by cartoonists of the eighteenth century" (Backer 1996, para. 4). Also political cartoons presented the history of United States. In Asian, especially in Singapore because there was under the British, political cartoons have continued by politician and the public. It could be connected to British directly. Like this, political cartoons' history started, in Europe, Asian, and United States, around the world.

2.3 Influence
One political cartoon has often strong powers, which show and move the public's desire. An illustration of this is "Join or Die" by Benjamin Franklin. Disconnected snake with abbreviated words represented the Colonies. This was the first American political cartoon; also it became the symbol of the American Revolution. Backer (1996, para. 5) states that "Franklin's snake is significant in the development of cartooning because it became an icon that could be displayed in differing variations throughout the existing visual media of the day". In addition, political cartoon are used to move the public by politician in general election campaigns. "General election campaigns show editorial cartoonists at their most political, like papers as a whole" (Seymour-Ure 2001, p. 338). The author also demonstrates that almost four out of five cartoons in the five weeks of the 1997 campaign were about the election. This fact could be shown how political cartoons affect that the concentration on the party leader as the representative or symbol of their immediate colleagues. In Singapore, editorial cartoonists persists similar way, "Better to be safe than to be sorry" is their own mentality state of civil consciousness (Tju 2001, p. 79).

3. Definition of Political Cartoon
3.1 Definition
Political cartoon define the visual aspects, discourse, and arguing without the need to read. One of these examples is Luther's cartoon, "Passional Christi und Antichristi" which was originally drawn by Lucas Cranach, with simple illustration and no writing. It may be for the people who could not read, and became more Christlike (Backer 1996, para. 3). Another of these examples is Steve Bell's cartoon in 1997, British. This cartoon figured one man, who wears the cellular underpants outside his trousers and is ready to fire his wick, with the title, "Election 97". In this example, "Major appears to hope the pants will act as a sort of rocket launcher, jetting him into the general election campaign" (Seymour-Ure 2001, p. 350).

3.2 Reasons
The public want to know hidden truths. Also, they want to change or turn to the right direction. These describe why political cartoons are continued within history. The author, Seymour-Ure (2001) describes continuity among cartoonists. "This combination of familiarity and predictability with a particular freshness every day is what provides a newspaper with its stability as an enterprise" (p. 337). Flows of stories in political cartoons are attractive because it seems like separated story or not connected. However, it is not comics. This means for reading or recognising political cartoons, readers should know the background of each cartoon. That is why cartoonists have expressed instead of the public by independent way.

3.3 Examples
Some of political cartoons influenced salient events of history. "Join or Die" by Benjamin Franklin became the symbol of the American Revolution, it responded the Civil War. "Mr. Singapore 1996" in Asiaweek (2 February 1996) by Heng, which was illustrated that "a bodybuilder symbolising Singapore is showing off his muscles" (Tju 2001, p. 80). It also connected the social issues, Singapore back to China. "The Harmony Boys" by David Low, there were four people in this cartoon. One of these people was Hitler who orchestrated from Italy, Spain, and the USSR, early in the Second World War. "Low epitomised Hitler, for his own and subsequent generations, through such tabs of identity as the forelock and moustache" (Seymour-Ure 2001, p. 336).

4. Conclusion
Political cartoons could be defined universally because countries that have politics and no limit of expression have political cartoons. This history is long term because it is the public's desire and expression of opinions. Even though politicians do not want to be treated by cartoon, it is significant way to develop "human social".


Backer, D. 1996, 'A Brief History of Political Cartoon', Uniting Mugwumps and the Masses, viewed 11 September 2007, <>.

Seymour-Ure, C. 2001, 'What Future for the British Political Cartoon?', Journalism Studies, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 333-355.

Tju, L.C. 2001, 'Political Cartoons in Singapore: Misnomer or Redefinition Necessary?', Journal of Popular Culture, pp. 77-83.

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Serious problems that international students face

Sydney's students, especially in international students, are in the middle of problems about their accommodation.

A survey of 100 international students, who study courses of Academic English Pathway at UTS: Insearch, states Sydney CBD and around suburbs, such as Ultimo, Waterloo, and Pyrmont, have 39% students. Moreover, 84% students of them live in a kind of share house, and over 50% of their share houses have over four people.

"There are eleven people in my three-bed roomed house. My house is just like a backpacker, it is not private space," one of these students said.

He usually study in the library of UTS but cannot study in his room with two room-mates. "Even though I am at home, I do not go to bed before midnight because I cannot get to sleep," he also said. This describes why he meets friends of him after 10 pm. However, he does not want to live in outside of the city. "City has everything in my Australian life, such as my school, friends, etc. I am enjoying city life except my house."

The survey also states that students, who live in Sydney CBD and around suburbs, pay a higher cost than others, who live in outside of the city. For example, by 120 dollars, could be able to get an over three people room in the city, however, in outside of city, can live in a two people room. Thus, city's students find low cost houses to save money, which is reason why too many people live in a house.

According to an interview with a one of the city's apartment renters, who has contracted by a real estate directly, most city apartments, especially in share houses, have more than four people, and those are often used to earn money. "I agree that a cost of share house in the city is more expensive than outside of the city's, but nobody cares. Every student wants to live in the city, so this cost is made by them. It might seem a relationship between supply and demand," the renter said.

How do eleven people live in a three-bed roomed house? The answer is "3-2-2-2-2"; 3 is in a master room, 2 and 2 are in each second room, 2 is in the living room, and 2 is on the sunlounge.

"We have got documents, called Residential Tenancy Agreement," a manager of one of real estates in the city said.

"A renter has to agree how many people can live in there, and if a renter breaks any of the terms of the agreement, a contract will be ended by a landlord."

Through the Agreement (1997 edition, page 7), "A fixed term agreement may be ended for the following reasons, provided that a least 14 days' notice is given," this means that a renter, who broken a contract, must leave a house 14 days later. "But it hardly happens," a manager said.

Does it make sense? "We have already known that problem, but from the Agreement, we have no more than four inspections are allowed in any period of 12 months," a manager continued. Inspections are to check whether agreement is doing well or not, but these are not surprise inspections. "To inspect the premises, if the tenant gets 7 days' notice" (the Agreement, page 7). "Actually, we cannot count how many people live in there when we have an inspection. We just suppose it from furniture, such as beds, desks, and clothes chests, but it is also difficult to guess because some of tenants have often moved furniture before inspection. If we have no evidence, a contract is continued."

One of the major problems from this situation is no guarantee of safety. "City of Sydney Council inspects all buildings, include shops, apartments, and houses, about fire safety," a building surveyor of Sydney Council said. Council's inspections focus on every kind of a fire-fighting equipment, a line, an apparatus, and an alarm. "We also inspect inside of houses but we do not count how many people live in there. However, if we judge that some situations, for example, a lot of electric equipments are plugged in a one socket, could be able to cause a fire, we impose a penalty on a building owner," he said.

"A lot of friends of mine want to stay in the city. And I will also never move out of the city. We are here to study, and we are here to enjoy. I do not want to give up both, even my safety and private life do not be guaranteed," the student said, and then he goes to the library.

Accommodation problems for students are not short term. Everybody knows that but nobody tries to make countermeasures, include schools. Educational work is one of most important businesses to Australia. To continue this work, effective plans may be drawn up.