Bondi Beach

Bondi Beach, New South Wales, Australia

'Genome Project' Trailer

U3 with Blue Light


The Bourne Series

Watching movie may be one of the popular hobbies to the public. The film as an art field may be more popular than other fields because of its expression ability. By unlimited this ability with technological development, film genres have varied. This variability could be from destruction and combination of ideas of this art. Spy film is one of the popular genres; it is generally a sub-genre of action and thriller film. The one spy film series in this essay is Jason Bourne films which is composed of three films, The Bourne Identity (2002), The Bourne Supremacy (2004), and The Bourne Ultimatum (2007). This essay will discuss identification, description and ideological perspectives of this series.

The Jason Bourne film series is adapted by Robert Ludlum's novels. In beginning of this series, Jason Bourne was found by fishermen on a boat but he did not know his name, and he also had uncompleted memory of his past. During stay with fishermen, he found his extraordinary abilities, such as physical combat, fluent spoken many languages and superb at handling vehicles. However, he still had no idea of his past, and wanted to know who he was. His real name is David Webb and he had a wife and two children but they were unintentionally killed by two bombs. In addition, he was actually a special assassin for the Medusa, a top-secret and government-funded project unit of the CIA. He learned all the CIA protocols and trade-craft, which was for a fake job, and then he was deployed to various locations around the world and assassinated many people. But on a job in France, he failed his mission, and was shot in the back twice while attempting to escape. The CIA believed that he was dead, and covered all facts of the project. However, he appears out of the world. He must have died for the CIA to keep the secret. Now, they have to find and catch or kill him, and Jason Bourne also has to find truth – his identity, with a removal plan of them.

The genre of his series is action drama with thriller, and war film genre without tanks. Jason Bourne was a top-secret special agency but it is not now. Also, he has no idea about his past. Moreover, he has to find and fight truth behind the facts. Simply, this series deals about one man’s journey to find his identity. Typically, spy films treat spies who find out the political, military, or industrial secrets of enemies or rivals. Through theme of fictional espionage, these films could be divided between realistic and fantasy, so Jason Bourne series could be the realistic story. In addition, the spy film genre is involving a spy or a secret agent who has been well trained by the military with good career, and a love for own country or organisation. Also, spies usually work alone with their organisation's support and always use the state-of-the art technologies (Britton 2006, pp. 123-125).

Although Jason Bourne series is one of spy films and follows the typical plot of spy films, however, he is now not a spy, and wants to know his identity more than ever. To Jason Bourne, killing someone who tried to kill Bourne is just steps, not his purpose. That is why Jason Bourne called "a spy for the new era" (Tallerico 2007, para. 2).

There is only one option; to be us or to be them. Spy films talk about relationships of contrary positions. The positions are in the middle of their unshaken faith; protecting and keeping. Moreover, in the historical timeline, the enemies in spy films changed from secret organisations to the Soviet Union. However, after the Cold War, modern spies have fought the insiders or the Third World. The history of spy film genre is quite long. It began in the silent picture days, and it is still continued with historical context, such as the start of the First World War, and the Second World War and the Cold War (Britton 2005, pp. 219-221).

After the Cold War, spy films especially in Hollywood needed new enemies instead of Soviet Union. Secret organisations nobody knows have been dealt by this need. However, just 'cause' is often not making sense. Ironically, it is estrangement between real and what in the "film". "The action spectacle is arguably transvergent: it is defined by technology instead of culture, not only in terms of its content but also in terms of its mode of production, latterly through the use of digital special effects in particular" (Brown 2007, pp. 95-96).

Just truth and conspiracy without heroes and enemies

Jason Bourne tries to find who he was, it is not who I am. His past is probably fact to him (he also believes that his past does not belong to him, it is slanted). However, his past is the result of his choice in his life. So, where was truth and where is truth? Truth and fact are not different; it depends on his sense of responsibility, because his life must have belonged to him. In addition, the truth of others, Pamela Landy and Noah Vosen who also work for the CIA as high-class managers (they also argued about his identity) truth also belongs to them, even if they walked the same way. There were no heroes and enemies, because they did the right thing they believed. It is just point of audience's view. Moreover, everybody lost truth but nobody lost their justice. At the end of this series, Jason Bourne can know his past and truth he wanted to know, but he had to run away with real Jason Bourne as David Webb.


Britton, W. 2005, Beyond Bond: Spies in Fiction and Film, Praeger, London.

Britton, W. 2006, Onscreen and Undercover: The Ultimate Book of Movie Espionage, Praeger, London.

Brown, W. 2007, 'Sabotage or Espionage?', Studies in French Cinema, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 93-106.

Tallerico, B. 2007, ‘Is It James or Jason You Want in Your Corner?’, Bond vs Bourne, viewed 13 December 2007, <>.

Is It Possible to Know What Happens in War Zones?

The world we live is definitely not a stranger to war. From civil wars to global wars, all wars have had their own purposes and moral justification. The public also believe that those wars have had causes, because, even they have not been there, they have seen and heard what happens from the newspapers and on TV. However, there are two opposing circumstances, truth and facts, that determine whether it is possible to know what happens in war zones. This essay will discuss truth and facts of happens in war zones, focusing on three elements of governments, information and heroes.

Governments and War
Governments have used wars to win the confidence of the people. The public in democracy society can choose governments. This choice gives governments power to stay. However, how do governments gain the pubic? According to Mor (2007, p. 661), governments' half of "power politics" could be made by image-making. Image-making means the representation of government figures or the portrayal of authority, conservatism, and liberalism. On one hand, it is possible that the government put forward certain images for the sake of the people. Waging war is one of the good ways to show government's efforts for the people, and to gain public support, because of this, the public always feel uneasy when they relate about war. So, they have to believe and have faith the government's process in war. As a result, waging war may be good chance for governments to stay in power within the public; by spending money on resources, and protection for soldiers to keep safe their country and keep the peace of the world.

Information within Wars
Information within wars is limited by governments. Even though governments said that the purpose of waging wars was for the protection of the public and keep the peace, wars could be used by advantage governments. For example, there is a relationship between governments and the munitions industry, and no war means any need for the munitions industry.

There is no war without a "just" cause. To wage war, governments need the help of the other side; the 'enemy'. But, government requesting help from the enemy must convince the public that they are only the 'enemy'. However, what is the reason for establishing an enemy? An example of this was "Weapons of Mass Destruction" for Iraq War in 2003. The main reason of the Iraq War was so the U.S. government could remove these weapons, eventually creating a war; but there was no evidence of this. They did not care about just causes, because the public also did not care about it. The reasons for war changed as the enemy attacked "our soldiers". Now, the just cause is the destruction of all opposing countries, even the innocent. This gave reason for the public to change their belief about the war. How? The information the public had seen was controlled by US military with US government. War reporters could not take photographs whatever they wanted, and go wherever they wanted, because they had to stay with an army company. It seemed limited lens. The public also saw what happens in Iraq through limited lens. That was not freedom and truth of information. It was given by US military to the public. However, they believed it; because that was just one thing they could see and hear from Iraq.

"If it is on television, it must be real" (in Wag the Dog, 1997).

Heroes within Wars
Government had slanted the news about wars. This can be done through the description of a hero in war zones. One hero can influence many people. To be a hero is people's desire, also a hero must have respect by the people. For these reasons, within wars, heroes were aspects of making purpose for war by the governments. "Moreover, warriors and journalists are irreplaceable components in the structure of a constitutional republic, ensuring national security and the right of the people to know what their government is doing in their name and in their interests" (Buchanan and Press, MSNBC, April 16, 2003). Examples of this propaganda are Private Jessica Lynch and US Soldier Pat Tillman. Private Jessica Lynch was captured in an Iraqi ambush and then rescued by US special troop from an Iraqi hospital. However, the real story was that she had a vehicle accident and Iraqi doctors looked after her well. Moreover, they helped US special troops to rescue her. Another example, the case of Pat Tillman also showed government propaganda. Tillman was a football star in US match. He denied a multi-million dollar contract and then he joined the US military. Tillman was killed in Afghanistan during working military service. However, the real story of Tillman was that he had been killed by 'friendly fire'.

The purpose of the war was not simply removal of enemies. There were many reasons, such as the public's support and relationship between government and the munitions industry. To make governments’ side, the wars had slanted and repacked. The press was also controlled by the governments to keep the public's concerns. Governments did not want the public to know the real purpose and what happens in war zones, because there is no just cause if there is no support from the public and no staying in power. The public believe what they can see and hear what happens in war zones because it is on TV, even if truth is behind the "TV".


Carlson, M. 2006, 'War Journalism and the "KIA Journalist": The Cases of David Bloom and Michael Kelly', Critical Studies in Media Communication, vol. 23, no. 2, June 2006, pp. 91-111.

Dexter, G. 1941, 'The Canadian Economy in Two Wars', Foreign Affairs, vol. 19, no. 2, January 1941, pp. 442-452.

MOR, B.D. 2007, 'The Rhetoric of Public Diplomacy and Propaganda Wars: A View from Self-Presentation Theory', European Journal of Political Research, pp. 661-683.

Playdon, P. 2002, "'Under Friendly Fire": an Interview with Eve-Ann Prentice', Journalism Studies, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 267-275. 2007, 'Jessica Lynch', viewed 12 December 2007, <>. 2007, 'Pat Tillman', viewed 12 December 2007, <>.

Mary Wollstonecraft

1. Biography
• 27 April 1759 in London – 10 September 1797 in London
• Writer, philosopher and feminist (British Enlightenment in 18th Century)
• She wrote novels, treatises, a travel narrative, a history of the French Revolution, a conduct book, and a children’s book.
• Key figure; Modern feminism (Western feminism's leading icon)
• Poor early life
- His father did violence to her mother.
- Her sister suffered social condemnation and, because she could not remarry, was doomed to a life of poverty and hard work (Wikipedia, para. 4).

2. Main Ideas
• The rights of man and the rights of women were one and the same thing.
- To egalitarian social philosophy as the basis for the creation and preservation of equal rights and opportunities for women.
• The young women they tried to teach had already been effectively enslaved by their social training in subordination to men (Kemerling 2006, para. 1).
• To obtain social equality society must rid itself of the monarchy as well as the church and military hierarchies (Simkin 1997, para. 7).

• Major Book
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792)
- The first declaration of feminism
- Women are recognised as sharing with men the capacity and the right to be regarded as autonomous being, entitled to recognition as citizens in the civic sphere (Caine 1997, p. 24).
- Equal rights and opportunities for women (no attempt to deny sexual difference)
- Women are not naturally inferior to men, but appear to be only because they lack education.
- Specifically a response to the legislation which established a new system of education for boys, not for girls.

• Quotes
- "Till women are more rationally educated, the progress in human virtue and improvement in knowledge must receive continual checks" (Wollstonecraft 1792, Ch. 3)
- "It would be an endless task to trace the variety of meanness, cares, and sorrows, into which women are plunged by the prevailing opinion that they were created rather to feel than reason, and that all the power they obtain, must be obtained by their charms and weakness" (Wollstonecraft 1792, Ch. 4)

3. Wollstonecraft’s Importance
• As the founding figure of modern feminism is accorded higher recognition now than it has ever been before.
• Demanding recognition not only of Wollstonecraft's place in the history of feminism, but also in the history of political theory. – A new dimension to political theory by offering a 'means of stretching the liberal temperament to incorporate into political thinking explicit concern for the quality of personal relations and day-to-day conditions of the ordinary citizens' (Caine 1997, p. 24).

4. Impact on the society of the time
• Helping women to achieve a better life, not only for themselves and for their children, but also for their husbands (Kreis 2004, para. 9).
• Wollstonecraft herself would never have referred to her text as feminist because the words feminist and feminism were not coined until the 1890s. Moreover, there was no feminist movement to speak of during Wollstonecraft's lifetime.

5. Social Context
• French Revolution (1789) - emphasis on "Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity" of human, but not includes women.
• Since women were thought to have keener nerves than men, it was also believed that women were more emotional than men. Men were considered to be logical and decisive, where women were considered weak and hysterical.

6. Reception of Ideas (React)
• Wollstonecraft's work has had an effect on feminism outside the academy in recent years.
• Virginia Sapiro - "there is little indication that anyone who played a key role in women's history or feminism, other than Lucretia Mott, read Wollstonecraft's work seriously after her death until the twentieth century".
• Ayaan Hirsi Ali - "inspired by Mary Wollstonecraft, the pioneering feminist thinker who told women they had the same ability to reason as men did and deserved the same rights".

7. Acceptance by the media of the time
• "Hyena in Petticoats" - The ideas were truly revolutionary and caused tremendous controversy.
• Mary Wollstonecraft's views even shocked fellow radicals. Whereas advocates of parliamentary reform such as Jeremy Bentham and John Cartwright had rejected the idea of female suffrage.

8. Relevance
• One of the founding feminist philosophers
• Feminists often cite both her life and work as important influences.
• ... To represent women's hopes of a society free from misogyny and sexual injustice. However distant her ideas and imaginings may be from feminist thinking of the present -- very distant indeed in some cases.… -- as a symbol of what remains to be achieved. Mary Wollstonecraft remains as vital and necessary a presence today as she was in the 1700's… (Taylor 2003, p. 253).

Caine, B. 1997, English Feminism, 1780-1980, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Kemerling, G. 2006, 'Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797)', viewed 4 December 2007, <>.

Kreis, S. 2004, 'Mary Wollstonecraft, 1759-1797', The History Guide, viewed 4 December 2007, <>.

Simkin J. 1997, 'Mary Wollstonecraft', Spartacus Educational, viewed 4 December 2007, <>.

Taylor, B. 2003, Mary Wollstonecraft and the Feminist Imagination, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Wikipedia 2007, 'Early Life', Mary Wollstonecraft, viewed 4 December 2007, <>.

Wollstonecraft, M. 1792, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman: with Strictures on Political and Moral Subjects, London.

Newsletter: aM i a Player3

1. Topic
The topic of this project for newsletter composed of print and online version is MP3 players. This newsletter will be named "aM i a Player3 (Am I a player?)" that could emphasise the main word, MP3. The newsletter will convey new movements and information about new MP3 player products and purchasing prices.

2. Goals
The purpose of this project is to provide useful information by print and online method. One in 10 U.S. adults, about 22 million people, has a MP3 player (Ranger 2005, para. 1). Even though MP3 players have become popular music player, this is still recognised something difficult to enjoy the music because this requires technical environment, such as the Internet and computer. Moreover, some MP3 magazines are using technical words which are difficult to understand in their reviews. This newsletter will be easy to read and enjoy new technical issues and knowledge helping MP3 players. It will be able to be substantial purchasing guides of new MP3 products.

3. Target Market
The target market of the newsletter varies in different methods. Print version targets localised in Sydney, Australia, whereas online version targets world-wide. The global sales of MP3 players have been rapidly increasing. It had increased twice from U$ 23.10 billions in 2003 to U$ 46.60 billions in 2006. In addition, the prospect of this consumption is up to U$ 57.70 in 2008 ("I Want My MP3" 2004, p. 21). That is how the newsletter (online version) targets world-wide. However, the prices of MP3 players are different at each local market. Thus, print version (if it includes the price information) must have targeted by regional markets.
According to the Nielsen Media Research (cited in Commercial Radio Australia 2006), the age of 25-39 years is 32% of MP3 player owners and the age of 14-24 years is 41% of MP3 player owners. The survey tells us that the main users of MP3 player are posited at the age of 14-39 years (73%). As a result this age also could become the target audience of the newsletter.

4. Content
Both of the newsletters, print and online versions, convey four main contents. These contents are organised to support reader’s real acts. It could be structurally from induction of interest to making a purchase (Whitbread 2001, p. 2).

Deliver new technical issues, such as release the high capability memory chip.

Examine the features of new MP3 player with images.

Recommend recently MP3 players with main specs and retail prices.

Introduce useful words about MP3, such as codec, ID3 and Ogg.

5. Design Approach
The design approach of this is designed for readers in the target market. This approach should try to communicate information easily to understand by logical order and appropriate language (Whitbread 2001, p. 3). Although the target readers are interested in the same topic, MP3 player, each reader has different experiences and knowledge. Therefore, this newsletter will use moderate words, tone and images for the target age (14-39 years) in order to cover every reader.

5.1 Print Version
No chosen newsletter is just paper, not information. The newsletter of print version should be more attractive rather than online version. Shushan et al (1991, p. 3) state that newsletter must belong to readers to satisfy that readers' needs or wants the information, and to get readers' attention. Thus, his will use strong and simple words with big size font with colourful MP3 images to be recognised that this is about MP3 and this has something I want to know about MP3 in front page.

5.2 Online Version
The merit of online version is that it can combine large amount of the information. The online version of the newsletter will conveys larger information than the print version. According to Williams (1994), elements of newsletter can connect, relate and unify with the other information by placement. Online newsletter may be the next step of the print version so this must have more specific information and arrange clearly. An example of this is 'MP3 Glossary'. The print will describe meaning of a couple of words but the online will give more describing words to readers in the website.

'I Want My MP3' 2004, PC Magazine, 16 November, p. 21.

'Radio, MP3 Devices and Podcasting' 2006, National Survey Results: Survey 6, Commercial Radio Australia.

Ranger, S. 2005, 'IPod and MP3 Player Ownership Soars', viewed 23 November 2007, <>.

Shushan, R., Wright, D. & Lewis, L. 1991, 'Effective Communication in an Information Environment', Desktop Publishing by Design, Microsoft Press, pp. 2-9.

Whitbread, D. 2001, 'What Does Design Do?', The Design Manual, UNSW Press, pp. 2-5.

Williams, R. 1994, 'The Four Basic Principles', The Non-Designer's Design Book, Peachpit Press, CA.

Wag the Dog (1997)

"Wag the Dog" is a comedy movie showing relationship between politics and entertainment business.

Before 12 days of election, the United States President's sex scandal occurred with a Fine fly Girl. This affair will have a had influence upon the approval rating of the President The White House calls a spic doctor, Conrad Brean (Robert De Niro) to fix it. Brean decides making war with Albania and then he makes a deal with Hollywood’s producer, Stanley Motss (Dustin Hoffman).

Motss and his staffs produce the war from using computer graphics and making songs. The public start to believe the Albanian war. However, CIA interferes their project. Another candidate of election also demands an explanation from the sex scandal. Brean and Motss decide making a war hero, Sgt. William Schumann (Woody Harrelson) who survived in Albania and they make a song called "Old shoes". The hero and song create a sensation to the public, Finally, the President’s rating increases up to 87%.

This movie was one of the funniest movies in 1999. The director, Barry Levinson also got that his humour was still alive. This movie satirised both of two, politics and Hollywood. The Motss' house is bigger than the White House. Motss also enjoyed making them like playing game. Motss is much influenced producer who has never got any award but the White House recognised his skill to make the war.

This movie is funny. However, we are unable to laugh at ease because even though there are some funny conversations in the movie, these happenings, such as TV news, are too familiar to the real. Motss said in the movie "If it’s on television, it must be real".

They made lot of true but they just made one shoot scene (Albanian girl with a white cat), songs, and a hero. However, the public believed, and broadcasts also believed. This means politics is above the public but under the real.

Even Motss wanted to get true (truly wanted to recognise his work), he also became a part of this project. However, he can get his reputation and his works after his death. He can be both, victim and celebrity in the media.

Who is the dog? And who wag the dog? Mr Fix-it, Brean is doing well his job and Mr President does not show his face. By the way, for whom the election doing. Even though Brean's job is fixing problems in the White House, his job is faking to the public, and then the people do that re-elect the Mr President.

Actually, after showing this movie in the U.S., some events occurred, Clinton’s sex scandal called Zipper Gate and attacked a country, so this movie was like the trailer of real.

We believe that we can see truth but sometimes, it is just image that we want to believe the truth. Moreover, this is the fact everybody wants and demands that come together.

Have a look the Albania in the movie again. Everybody believed that everybody knew what happen there. However, nobody knew that.

The New Road to Effective Communications

In the article "The New Road to Effective Communications" (Parsons and Groh 2006), the authors argue the effects of new techniques for communications, especially between employers and employees.

According to the authors, there are five reasons proving that Human Resource communication strategies and procedures are failing today. Firstly is the changing of learning styles in the workforce. Today's environment requires short, simple and personalised messages to employees. Secondly, Human Resource programs with benefits and compensation have become too complicated. Thirdly, there is competition between Human Resource communications and other messages. Fourthly, new techniques, such as podcasts and instant messaging, are being used to gather employees' attention. However, these are not used for benefits communication. Finally, the purposes of Human Resource's communication have changed (Parsons and Groh 2006, pp. 57-58).

The authors point out that technologies, such as e-mail, teleconference, videoconference, and webcasts have shown that these are effective to reach a targeted audience and to collect immediate feedback. They also demonstrate that new technologies, such as blogs, instant messages, podcasts, and streaming media have been difined by the academic words in order to prompt their impact. An illustration of this is one of the recent studies by the University of North Carolina, "Blogs affect workplace trust, satisfaction, and commitment" (Parsons and Groh 2006, p. 60). Moreover, there are some reasons why new technologies are improving within workforces; helping connect between employees and the organisation by other means of learning and in turn, making it easier to send information.

In addition, Parsons and Groh (2006, p. 60) comment that many companies are worried about launching new technologies because answering and supporting issues is difficult. It is also accompanied by leadership support, credibility, liability, and staffing. Even these have the ability to increase the process (Parsons and Groh 2006, p. 61).

Parsons, A. & Groh, K. 2006, 'The New Road to Effective Communications', Compensation and Benefits Review, July/August 2006, pp. 57-64.

Two Websites; and

Operating website is now one of the popular ways to promote and convey the operators or organisations' purposes. There are two websites; first one is the International Press Institute's and another is Amnesty International's This post will explore and analyse these websites, focusing on the purposes and compositions.

This is the website of the International Press Institute (commonly known as IPI). According to the introduction of IPI, this global network of editors, media executives and leading journalists is dedicated to the furtherance and safeguarding of press freedom, the protection of freedom of opinion and expression, the promotion of the free flow of news and information, and the improvement of the practices of journalism.

The website communicates IPI events, such as world congresses, conferences, seminars and workshops, and through the World Press Freedom Review, this examines documenting press freedom violations and major media developments. In addition, this website delivers news and information, such as IPI's activities and congress reports.

There are many linked pages in this website; some of these pages provide their significant issues and could be recognised IPI's history, also show press freedom and journalist organisations and media groups which work to promote press freedom and human rights. An example of these pages is IPI Death Watch which refers to journalists and media staff who were deliberately targeted because of their profession - either because of their investigative reporting or simply because they were journalists. It also includes journalists who were caught in the crossfire while covering dangerous assignments. Through the IPI Death Watch, we can know 100 journalists killed in 2007 and 90 journalists killed so far in 2007.

'Press freedom' is the term commonly used to describe that we have the right to know what happens there. However, sometimes we forgot that someone sacrificed oneself for this freedom.

This is the website of Amnesty International (commonly known as AI). According to the AI, this is an international non-governmental organisation which is a worldwide movement of people who campaign for internationally recognised human rights and AI's vision is of a world in which every person enjoys all of the human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights standards.

This website is similar to IPI's website in main contents. The website communicates AI events, such as acting now, campaigns, and through the News sections, this can deliver movements about human rights all over the world. Moreover, visitors can navigate the whole library in English, French, Spanish and Arabic. Even though these website are similar, there is difference in the form. IPI’s website promotes its organisation; it seems to be a newsletter whereas AI's website is shaped like a news website. In addition, AI's website conveys their works and purposes.

AI's website also has many linked pages; these pages are defined more clearly than IPI's. It is easy to follow what AI wants to tell visitors. For example, the Library section could be used to find more specialised documents with selections which are countries, regions, subregions and themes all over the world. This could affect to arouse visitors' interest, because it is own country issues.

The effective website should arouse a public response everywhere. From this fact, AI's website could be a substantial work.

Spy Films

The spy films treat spies who find out the political, military, or industrial secrets of enemies or rivals. Through theme of fictional espionage, these films could be divided between realistic and fantasy, such as the Jason Bourne series and the James Bond series. Many spy films have adapted by novels. Ian Fleming's the James Bond series and Robert Ludlum's the Jason Bourne series are good examples. The history of spy film genre is quite long. It began in the silent picture days, and it is still continued with historical context, such as the start of the First World War, and the Second World War and the Cold War.

The spy film genre is generally a sub-genre of action and thriller film. It also could be war film genre without tanks because it deals with the operations of more than two countries or organisations. This genre is typically involving a spy or a secret agent who has been well trained by the military with good career, and a love for his country or organisation. They also have many names and passports to conceal one’s identity, very attractive face, and looking good female partner of partners. Spies usually work alone with their organisation’s support and always use the state-of-the-art technologies.

Heroes and enemies with romance and adventure between faith and conspiracy

There is only one option; to be us or to be them. Spy films talk about relationships of contrary positions. The positions are in the middle of their unshaken faith; protecting and keeping. Moreover, in the historical timeline, the enemies in the spy films changed from secret organisations to the Soviet Union. However, after the Cold War, modern spies have fought the insiders or the Third World.

Never Again

"Never leave that till tomorrow which you can do today."
- Benjamin Franklin

Taronga Zoo

Taronga Zoo, Mosman, NSW, Australia

The Universal Definition of Political Cartoon

1. Introduction
People and politics could be defined in economic terms of demand and supply or cause and effect. Politics obtain the powers that control national organisations by the people who want to develop their ground of lives. The public want to appear their opinion about politics. Politics comment on a variety of methods, such as music, movie, speeches, and cartoons. Political cartooning is one of the ways to convey the public's desire. However, political cartoons may be a sensitive issue, because it depends on situation of cartoonists and agreement by the public. The aim of this report is to examine the key a universal definition associated with the term political cartoon, also describe reasons and examples about the definition.

2. Discussion of Political Cartoon
2.1 Composition
Political cartoons are different from general cartoons. Typically, political cartoons are composed of two aspects, which are caricature and allusion. According to Backer (1996, para. 1), caricature is individual parodies and allusion is creations of the situation or context of the placement of the individual. These aspects are shown by simple illustration and short sentences usually to express strongly. Backer (1996, para. 1) also defines that political cartoons were the "fanciful exercises" in the past. It could be before did not appear the power of the political cartoons.

2.2 History
In Germany, the political cartoon was started by Martin Luther under the influence of Catholic Church. "As time went on, Germanic art assimilated the Italian caricature and established the conventions practised on a wide basis by cartoonists of the eighteenth century" (Backer 1996, para. 4). Also political cartoons presented the history of United States. In Asian, especially in Singapore because there was under the British, political cartoons have continued by politician and the public. It could be connected to British directly. Like this, political cartoons' history started, in Europe, Asian, and United States, around the world.

2.3 Influence
One political cartoon has often strong powers, which show and move the public's desire. An illustration of this is "Join or Die" by Benjamin Franklin. Disconnected snake with abbreviated words represented the Colonies. This was the first American political cartoon; also it became the symbol of the American Revolution. Backer (1996, para. 5) states that "Franklin's snake is significant in the development of cartooning because it became an icon that could be displayed in differing variations throughout the existing visual media of the day". In addition, political cartoon are used to move the public by politician in general election campaigns. "General election campaigns show editorial cartoonists at their most political, like papers as a whole" (Seymour-Ure 2001, p. 338). The author also demonstrates that almost four out of five cartoons in the five weeks of the 1997 campaign were about the election. This fact could be shown how political cartoons affect that the concentration on the party leader as the representative or symbol of their immediate colleagues. In Singapore, editorial cartoonists persists similar way, "Better to be safe than to be sorry" is their own mentality state of civil consciousness (Tju 2001, p. 79).

3. Definition of Political Cartoon
3.1 Definition
Political cartoon define the visual aspects, discourse, and arguing without the need to read. One of these examples is Luther's cartoon, "Passional Christi und Antichristi" which was originally drawn by Lucas Cranach, with simple illustration and no writing. It may be for the people who could not read, and became more Christlike (Backer 1996, para. 3). Another of these examples is Steve Bell's cartoon in 1997, British. This cartoon figured one man, who wears the cellular underpants outside his trousers and is ready to fire his wick, with the title, "Election 97". In this example, "Major appears to hope the pants will act as a sort of rocket launcher, jetting him into the general election campaign" (Seymour-Ure 2001, p. 350).

3.2 Reasons
The public want to know hidden truths. Also, they want to change or turn to the right direction. These describe why political cartoons are continued within history. The author, Seymour-Ure (2001) describes continuity among cartoonists. "This combination of familiarity and predictability with a particular freshness every day is what provides a newspaper with its stability as an enterprise" (p. 337). Flows of stories in political cartoons are attractive because it seems like separated story or not connected. However, it is not comics. This means for reading or recognising political cartoons, readers should know the background of each cartoon. That is why cartoonists have expressed instead of the public by independent way.

3.3 Examples
Some of political cartoons influenced salient events of history. "Join or Die" by Benjamin Franklin became the symbol of the American Revolution, it responded the Civil War. "Mr. Singapore 1996" in Asiaweek (2 February 1996) by Heng, which was illustrated that "a bodybuilder symbolising Singapore is showing off his muscles" (Tju 2001, p. 80). It also connected the social issues, Singapore back to China. "The Harmony Boys" by David Low, there were four people in this cartoon. One of these people was Hitler who orchestrated from Italy, Spain, and the USSR, early in the Second World War. "Low epitomised Hitler, for his own and subsequent generations, through such tabs of identity as the forelock and moustache" (Seymour-Ure 2001, p. 336).

4. Conclusion
Political cartoons could be defined universally because countries that have politics and no limit of expression have political cartoons. This history is long term because it is the public's desire and expression of opinions. Even though politicians do not want to be treated by cartoon, it is significant way to develop "human social".


Backer, D. 1996, 'A Brief History of Political Cartoon', Uniting Mugwumps and the Masses, viewed 11 September 2007, <>.

Seymour-Ure, C. 2001, 'What Future for the British Political Cartoon?', Journalism Studies, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 333-355.

Tju, L.C. 2001, 'Political Cartoons in Singapore: Misnomer or Redefinition Necessary?', Journal of Popular Culture, pp. 77-83.

My Celebrity Lookalikes


Serious problems that international students face

Sydney's students, especially in international students, are in the middle of problems about their accommodation.

A survey of 100 international students, who study courses of Academic English Pathway at UTS: Insearch, states Sydney CBD and around suburbs, such as Ultimo, Waterloo, and Pyrmont, have 39% students. Moreover, 84% students of them live in a kind of share house, and over 50% of their share houses have over four people.

"There are eleven people in my three-bed roomed house. My house is just like a backpacker, it is not private space," one of these students said.

He usually study in the library of UTS but cannot study in his room with two room-mates. "Even though I am at home, I do not go to bed before midnight because I cannot get to sleep," he also said. This describes why he meets friends of him after 10 pm. However, he does not want to live in outside of the city. "City has everything in my Australian life, such as my school, friends, etc. I am enjoying city life except my house."

The survey also states that students, who live in Sydney CBD and around suburbs, pay a higher cost than others, who live in outside of the city. For example, by 120 dollars, could be able to get an over three people room in the city, however, in outside of city, can live in a two people room. Thus, city's students find low cost houses to save money, which is reason why too many people live in a house.

According to an interview with a one of the city's apartment renters, who has contracted by a real estate directly, most city apartments, especially in share houses, have more than four people, and those are often used to earn money. "I agree that a cost of share house in the city is more expensive than outside of the city's, but nobody cares. Every student wants to live in the city, so this cost is made by them. It might seem a relationship between supply and demand," the renter said.

How do eleven people live in a three-bed roomed house? The answer is "3-2-2-2-2"; 3 is in a master room, 2 and 2 are in each second room, 2 is in the living room, and 2 is on the sunlounge.

"We have got documents, called Residential Tenancy Agreement," a manager of one of real estates in the city said.

"A renter has to agree how many people can live in there, and if a renter breaks any of the terms of the agreement, a contract will be ended by a landlord."

Through the Agreement (1997 edition, page 7), "A fixed term agreement may be ended for the following reasons, provided that a least 14 days' notice is given," this means that a renter, who broken a contract, must leave a house 14 days later. "But it hardly happens," a manager said.

Does it make sense? "We have already known that problem, but from the Agreement, we have no more than four inspections are allowed in any period of 12 months," a manager continued. Inspections are to check whether agreement is doing well or not, but these are not surprise inspections. "To inspect the premises, if the tenant gets 7 days' notice" (the Agreement, page 7). "Actually, we cannot count how many people live in there when we have an inspection. We just suppose it from furniture, such as beds, desks, and clothes chests, but it is also difficult to guess because some of tenants have often moved furniture before inspection. If we have no evidence, a contract is continued."

One of the major problems from this situation is no guarantee of safety. "City of Sydney Council inspects all buildings, include shops, apartments, and houses, about fire safety," a building surveyor of Sydney Council said. Council's inspections focus on every kind of a fire-fighting equipment, a line, an apparatus, and an alarm. "We also inspect inside of houses but we do not count how many people live in there. However, if we judge that some situations, for example, a lot of electric equipments are plugged in a one socket, could be able to cause a fire, we impose a penalty on a building owner," he said.

"A lot of friends of mine want to stay in the city. And I will also never move out of the city. We are here to study, and we are here to enjoy. I do not want to give up both, even my safety and private life do not be guaranteed," the student said, and then he goes to the library.

Accommodation problems for students are not short term. Everybody knows that but nobody tries to make countermeasures, include schools. Educational work is one of most important businesses to Australia. To continue this work, effective plans may be drawn up.

The Father of Economics, Adam Smith

"The Father of Economics", Adam Smith (1723 – 1790) was a Scottish economist and philosopher. He was born in a small town, Kirkcaldy near Edinburgh in Scotland, and was the son of the comptroller of the customs.

1. Life and Background
Adam Smith entered the University of Glasgow when he was 15 years old, studying Greek literature, mathematics, and ethics. He also studied moral philosophy under "the never-to-be-forgotten" Francis Hutcheson, a mercantilist. In 1740, he shifted to the Balliol College of the University of Oxford to study because England was stronger both in agriculture and economy than Scotland's. He met the philosopher David Hume who became one of the closets of his friends there, and was influenced by Hume's treatise, Human Nature. At the age of 25, he began delivering public lectures, rhetoric in Edinburgh, and then he assumed the professor of the University of Glasgow. In 1752, he transferred to the chair of moral philosophy that was a lecture of Smith's mentor, Francis Hutcheson. Smith's lectures covered the field of ethics, rhetoric, jurisprudence, and political economy, or "police and revenue". In 1759 he published Theory of Moral Sentiments, embodying some of his Glasgow lectures. This work gave him his reputation. At the end of 1763, he left Glasgow to become tutor to the young duke of Buccleuch, and he travelled France with his pupil from 1764 until 1766. In his travels, he came to know French physiocrats and philosophers such as Voltaire, Rousseau, and Franklin. After travelling, he devoted much of the next ten years to his magnum opus, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations which appeared in 1776. He also plunged studies of philosophy, history, and politics. He was appointed the president of the University of Glasgow in 1787 and died in Edinburgh on July 17, 1790.

The period of his time was before the Industrial Revolution. Merchant capital had been growing in cities, and manufacture became as new way of production in rural communities that time. Adam Smith could be called the economist of the age of manufacture. The beginning of large-scale industrial capitalism based on division of work affected his ideas; the whole society is similar to workplace doing division of work, the manufacturing industry is also important with commercial and agriculture industries. In 1776, however, the Industrial Revolution just began when An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations appeared. The theory of economy which worked after the Industrial Revolution was described by Smith before the Industrial Revolution through An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. It could make sure Adam Smith was the father of economics.

2. Career and Achievements
Adam Smith studied at the University of Glasgow, and then had studied by him self at the University of Oxford for six years. This was because there was no substantial education at Oxford. On returning to the University of Glasgow, he was appointed professor of logic (1751), then the chair of moral philosophy (1752). Economics was not an independent subject yet, so it was included moral philosophy in that time. This fact could be known that Smith's ideas were the beginning of economics.

Smith published two books, Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759) and An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776).

● Theory of Moral Sentiments
This theory was concerned with the explanation of moral approval and disapproval. From Smith's question; Why do we regard certain actions or intentions with approval and condemn others? People's opinions in the age of Smith were separated as two kinds; the law could judge what was right or wrong, and another was the moral standard which could be like mathematics formula. However, Smith presented new way of judgement within these arguments. He stated that everybody has lived with a moral sense which can see what is right or not. According to Smith, this sense called "sympathy" could be able to provide in social organisation. Thus, ethical emotion is a result of human nature, not human reason. This means that social organisation is seen as the outcome of human action but not necessarily of human design.

● An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations
This book became the first systematised economics book, and contributed theoretical and practical knowledge about economy. In this book, Smith claimed that free trade must be established proliferation of division of work being to increase people's wealth; he also warned monopolisation and protection in market by the Government are more harm than good. "A vast and stinging critique of the crippling regulation of commerce and trade that was then current, it argued that if people were set free to better themselves, it would – 'as if by an invisible hand' – actually benefit the whole of society" (Adam Smith Institute 2007, para. 6).

3. Context of His Age and His Ideas
When he published An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, the Industrial Revolution just began. England as an agricultural country exported food but the manufacturing industry just produced only fabric made by small farmhouses or minor enterprises. Nation's policy was mercantilism following regulation that defined labours cannot be able to move freely, and incomes are controlled. However, mercantilism was not affect because of the movement of population from rural communities and prevalence of contraband. As a result, new industrial capitalists and people in the city wanted to get free economic activities. Adam Smith's ideas were welcomed because his ideas were what they wanted.

"It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker, that we expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own interest. We address ourselves, not to their humanity but to their self-love, and never talk to them of our necessities but of their advantages" (Smith 1776, Book I, Chapter II). Through his book, he demonstrated that major motivation of human nature is pursuit of their own profits. In addition, there were basic regularities in the world, so whole social profits composed of individual profit naturally. He thought that these theories could be archived in the market by price called "the invisible hand". The basis called "laissez-faire" of this view was that a good economic system on field could be created when the government has less interference. In this view, the government must become small. This means that the government would arrange just the defence of a country, the public safety, and public enterprises, also against protective trade and claimed free trade.

4. Strengths or Weaknesses
In United States of 1929, the Wall Street Crash showed the weak point of Smith's "invisible hand". The Wall Street Crash of 1929 was one of the most devastation stock market crashes in United States' history. People believed that we had just waited to become quiet of the crash because market could be reduced by its self. However, there was no "invisible hand" there. For solving this panic, new government policy called "new deal" appeared by Roosevelt who was the thirty-second President of the United States. Free trade from laissez-faire also has not proved that the rich-get-richer and the poor-get-poorer. However, although his ideas have been weak, his ideas are still the basis of modern economics and still working. Adam Smith created the theory which could be proved the Industrial Revolution, capitalism, and modern economics before it happened.


Adam Smith Institute 2007, ‘Adam Smith’, Adam Smith Institute, viewed 29 August 2007, <>.

Smith, A. 1759, The Theory of Moral Sentiments.

Smith, A. 1776, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations.