Beautiful Night

Drink Smart! Party in Moderation - Video

Binge drinking has become so entrenched with young people today, that it defines their generation. This short film embarks on a journey into the excessive drinking parties held by students at tertiary level. It encapsulates the consequences of binge drinking and highlights alcohol’s negative effects and costs.

Drink Smart! Party in Moderation - Poster

Drink Smart! Party in Moderation - T-Shirt

Drink Smart! Party in Moderation - Logo

The logo of our campaign, against binge drinking, created by Rachel


Postmodernism and Jean Baudrillard

How can we define we live in some age? Who can define the age? Most of us who study modern industry and culture, have heard that we live in postmodernism. Why? Because of the modernism age has simply gone, so, now is postmodernism? Postmodernism is still defined unclearly. This has appeared since 1960-70s in which subjects of literature, architecture and art, however, it has been used different meaning of concept in each subject. This essay will explore the general ideas of postmodernism, focusing on the idea of French philosopher, Jean Baudrillard, which is analysed through his book, The Evil Demon of Images (1987) and defined his thoughts from other philosophers.

Jean Baudrillard
Jean Baudrillard (1929-2007) had been known as a French philosopher, sociologist and cultural theorist, was famous through his theories, such as public and mass communication, and mass media and consumption, which are associated with postmodernism.

Baudrillard claimed that people, who have lived in modern age, have consumed their likings rather than functionally use of objects (The Consumer Society: Myths and Structures, 1970), and advocated theories; simulation – reproduction images alternate the real (Simulacra and Simulation, 1981 and hyperreality – if there is no more objects that can be reproduced, then hyperrealty that seems to more real rather than real objects, instead of the real (The Perfect Crime, 1995).

Though theories about public, mass communication, mass media and consumption society, Baudrillard stated that modern society is consumption culture and the people, who live in its culture, have bought the products without its usefulness, because the meaning of buying conveys getting power and authority. They have thus consumed their tastes or likings. In addition, the real, we have believed in, is no longer real because of reproduction images by the Simulation theory. In his view, the Gulf War was not exist in 1991, because no one can say they won and the war did not change anything, thus, it was nothing.

The Evil Demon of Images
In Baudrillard’s book, The Evil Demon of Images (1987) at the University of Sydney, he portrays his ideas about methods of media, such as TV, film and photographs that deliver facts to the public.

Through this book, Baudrillard developed his thoughts – simulacra – as the significant illustrations of the simulacra; "images precede the real to the extent that they invert the causal and logical order of the real and its reproduction (Baudrillard 1987, p. 13)". The author (Baudrillard 1987) demonstrated that images, we have been seeing, such as, photographic, movies and on television, deliver the facts to us and we believe it is the happenings in the today's world. However, it is just showing some things "to resemble reality, events and faces" to the public. Moreover, it takes on their appearance to resemble the other and makes them "enter the realm of metamorphosis despite themselves". An illustration of this is an animal's own being; animals do not know how they conform, but if they know about that they become individual being (pp. 14-15).

In addition, the images are not simply reflecting the real. It could reflect reducing and distorting facts from the real or making better than the real. Since that time, the real is not real anymore, it is just thing to be belonged or taken by the just "real" – not the real. For example, many of us did not touch the battle field during the Vietnam War, but we have become an expert about the war: we have known what kind of helicopters were there and weapons were used, and how the feeling in there, etc. – sunset colour, Vietnamese faces and children are crying. How do we know, even though some of us were born after the war? Yes, Apocalypse Now. We have believed it is exactly the same between the movie and the real war, because we have simply seen the movie which is created by real people within real happenings. All right, now, the War at South Vietnam is replaced on your television at the living room. And we would be crying, because it is a sad story of the war. True or fake and cause and effect do not matter at that time and "TV is also an implosive nuclear", because of chain-reactive process (pp. 16-19).

Baudrillard defined the "Simulacrum and reality, it is clear that the real so arranged itself, in the image of the film, as to produce a simulation of catastrophe (p. 20)". It is the logic of simulacra: the images must have its purpose against or related to the real. It also affect memories of people, but after replaying it makes opposite results from people’s memories to people connected memory (pp. 20-23).

The author also defined between TV as media and cold war: "To reheat this cold event via a cold medium, television, for masses who are themselves cold (p. 25), TV, the veritable final solution to the historicity of every event. In a word, we dream of our disappearance and of seeing the world in its inhuman purity (p. 26)".

Baudrillard did not believed in pedagogy of images and dialectic between image and reality, because of respect of images, in pedagogy of message and meaning. He thought it is collusion between images and life. (p. 27). It is just a kind of "primal please, of anthropological joy in images, a kind of brute fascination unencumbered by aesthetic, moral, social or political judgements, because of this it is their fundamental power lies in this immorality" (p. 28).
Therefore, "there is something more than that which is peculiar to our modern media image" and the images are sites of "the production of meaning and representation" - it is on the contrary because they are sites of the disappearance of meaning and representation – which "we are caught quite apart from any judgement of reality", thus sites of a mortal approach of denegation of the real and of the reality principle (p. 29).

Baudrillard pointed out the "Simultaneous with this attempt at absolute coincidence with the real, cinema also approaches an absolute coincidence with itself”. And he also claimed movies plagiarise and resemble it, "remakes its classics, retro activates its original myths, remakes silent films more perfect than the originals, etc.": he emphasised that all this is logical. "Cinema is fascinated by itself as a lost object just as it (and we) is fascinated by the real as a referential in perdition and these things including cool promiscuity, asexual engagement of two cold media which evolve in asymptotic line towards one another (p. 33-34)".

Through this book, Baudrillard conveyed the example of object of simulacra in modern life. That is the media – TV, movies and photographs, we have called and deliver of facts we believed in. It could be defined through his thoughts; we are just seeing the images on those media. It is just images, not more and not less. The real is always there behind them.

The definition of postmodernism is vague, because this movement of age is also not clear. According to Jean-Francois Lyotard (1924-1988), a French philosopher and literary theorist, in his book, The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge (1979), the postmodern condition is in which a quintessential feature of modernity, such as mental dialectic, a movement for the emancipation of working class, an accumulated capital, demolishing the distinction of classes, does gather any confidence.

Postmodernism, this is a cultural movement and a concept of culture, politics, economy and society in today’s age. This was begun by a student's political activity, women's liberation movement, antisegregation movement in the United States and France in 1960s and then through 1970s, to today. Through the features of postmodernism below, it could be recognised closer. Firstly, postmodernism is indeterminacy meant several features including vagueness, discontinuity, voluntariness, treason and etc. That means accept naturally no regret world's dissolution. Because postmodernism has no absoluteness, it can accept variety and coincidence of life. Secondly, fragmentation, modernist had desire about some rules and units, and then they had used the method based on fragment. Postmodernism, however, have showed its self form the fragment, and that is all. In the modernism, it tried to gather within whole system that can make human life all the same in capitalism. Therefore, the products of art were rejected by the capitalism, but those products have come into the consumption system in postmodernism. Finally, decanonisation. Canonisation means that somebody is stated officially now a saint. It was realisation of universal value, but it is now professed ruling ideology, Western civilisation and an androcentric society. "In a universe where no more explanations are possible, all that remains is to play with the pieces. Playing with the pieces, that is postmodernism (Baudrillard 1987, p. 29)". As a result, decanonisation comes into the world. Postmodernism rejects high social class culture and elitism. It comes together with the public. Thus, in the literature area, new genre stories came such as, a detective story, Sci-Fi fiction, women's literature, and in art area, used bottle of Coca-Cola and the Superman images by Andy Warhol.

"Simplifying to the extreme, I define postmodern as incredulity toward metanarratives. This incredulity is undoubtedly a product of progress in the sciences: but that progress in turn presupposes it (Lyotard 1970)". Postmodernism that has these features is progressive. It reflects previous sense of value, rejects the art for the one class and aims the art that all classes enjoy, so it uses materials and topics that the public touch friendly. Moreover, postmodernism is very reality. It shows directly what world we live in. However, the meaning of "showing directly" is not the same, "realism". Its self of realism could not be real; it is following new method up and against pleasure of good method. These features state that postmodernism is non political and historical movement, but it does not matter of postmodernist who has no interested in politics and realise the history is discontinuity being.


This essay explored the concept and features of postmodernism so far. Postmodernism is not a clearly defined subject. Postmodernism is progress movement and tries to get over the limits of the previous literature level. Also, it denies the art for only one class and makes the public join together. However, the most important is postmodernism is the concept which is formed and indeterminate. It is not the social responsibility. Therefore, it is unnecessary that "postmodernism is like that".

Baudrillard, J. 1981, Simulacra and Simulation, trans. S.F. Glaser, University of Michigan Press, 1995, Ann Arbor.

Baudrillard, J. 1970, The Consumer Society: Myths and Structures, 1st edn, Sage Publications Ltd, 1998, London.

Baudrillard, J. 1987, The Evil Demon of Images, Power Institute, Sydney, pp. 13-34.

Baudrillard, J. 1995, The Perfect Crime, Verso Books, 1996, London.

Lyotard, J.F. 1979, The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge, Manchester University Press, 1984, Manchester.

THE TICKET (with Korean subtitles)

No Winners (Practice Shoot)

This is a practice shoot for the campaign, anti-binge drinking.

Real one is coming September 2008.

Be Smart, Party in Moderation

TEMPEST - Master of Puppets & So What

This was the first performance of TEMPEST, Korean indie rock band, in 2003.

Vocal: Jae Chul Yoo
1st Guitar: Chul Ji
2nd Guitar: Seung Chan Yoon
Bass: Sung Ho Hwang
Drums: Jae Seol Myung
Keyboard: Ji Eun Lim


Chalmers Street, Sydney, Australia

The Day (2003)

Do you remember the day in 2003?

We were in the Crazy where we had celebrated every birthday.

We were crazy, but I miss you in the day.

"3" - 3 minutes

Rachel has only 3 minutes to get to class.

Class exercise - Moving camera

This exercise was good to understand how camera operated by non-tripod and wide-lens helped on moving camera. Also sound effects make the video livelier.

THE TICKET - Storyboard


The film begins with a peaceful park on some sunny day. One old man fumbles about trying to find his cigarette in his pocket, but he does not have any. He asks some people who walk by him to borrow a cigarette, but they do not answer him. He continues to look for someone to give him a cigarette. Suddenly, he sees a booth with a reception desk and a card “Get free ticket”.

I am a tough guy!

Who's that guy in the photo? James Dean? No!
His name is Quentin Fuller, who has passion more than anyone I know.

This photo above is one of my favourite photos of Quentin.
In this photo, he doesn't appear that he trying to look good,
but he tells us I am a tough guy and we realise that when he turns to the camera.

In May 1970, he was in Vietnam as a soldier.
In May 2008, he is in The Ticket as a mysterious man.

THE TICKET - Trailer

THE TICKET is just around the corner!

THE TICKET directed by Jae Yeon Hwang is now just around the corner.

In this short film, the director captures the elements between life and death. The film focuses on the choices we make to continue living or to embrace death.

The film will be showcased in May 2008 on the director's official website,

Great Buckingham Films

Great Buckingham Films

"Doing a Grand Job!" Join the W.A.A.A.F

During the two wars, World War I and II, a large number of posters grabbed the public's attention in each country. These posters were used by governments to promote recruitment and encourage people to join the armed services. These recruiting posters served as a notice to advertise the war were also used for propaganda purposes, persuasion and motivation. This essay will analyse the poster captioned, "Doing a Grand Job!" Join the W.A.A.A.F. This poster was used by the Australian Air Force during the Second World War, especially to recruit women.

Propaganda refers to ideas or statements that may be false or exaggerated. According to Jowett and O'Donnell (1999), "propaganda is the deliberate, systematic attempt to shape perceptions, manipulate cognitions, and direct behaviour to achieve a response that furthers the desired intent of the propagandist". The aim of the messages of propaganda is to influence the public's thoughts, opinions or behaviour. The "Doing a Grand Job!" Join the W.A.A.A.F propaganda poster, convinced the target audience to enter the military in order to fight for their own country and family. This essay will demonstrate the signification of the war poster in terms of the first and second order of signification, focusing on the gender ideology in the second order.

Signification is composed of two elements; denotation and connotation. According to Fiske (1990, pp. 85-86), the first order describes "the relationship between the signifier and signified", that derive ideas from Ferdinand de Saussure (1857 – 1913), a modern linguist. The second order of the signification describes the "interaction that occurs when the sign meets the feelings or emotions of the users and the values of their culture", that used as the term by Roland Barthes (1915-1980), a semiotician.

The war poster in this essay, "Doing a Grand Job!" Join the W.A.A.A.F (Northfield 1942) was used to recruit women to the Australian Air Force.

Large numbers of men had been sent to the battle fields during the two world wars. Most industries at that time concentrated on the war. Prior to World War II, most women did not do jobs other than household work. With most men away at war, women needed to support their families. These needs lead to the use of women in many new job opportunities created by the government. For this reason, in March 1941, The Women's Auxiliary Australian Air Force (WAAAF) was formed as the first and largest of the World War II Australian Women's services. Furthermore, women worked for the Air Force to assist male wireless telegraphers for the first time. Until WAAAF was disbanded in December 1947, approximately 27,000 women had worked. The women were accepted into 73 different positions, including highly skilled technical employment, such as telegrapher, armament worker, electrician, fitter, flight mechanic, fabric worker, instrument maker and meteorological assistant (National Foundation for Australian Women 2008).

In the left of the poster, there is a woman, oblique standing, wearing a blue jacket, a black necktie, a gray shirt, and a blue hat and gazing at the sky. In the bottom-right of the poster, an office different place from the woman, there are two women who wear the same blue clothes with the woman. The left woman of them sits on the chair, wears a headset – a pair of headphones with a microphone and writes something on the paper on the desk. The right woman also sits on the chair and typewrites. In the middle-right of the poster, there are two fighter planes behind outside of the office where two women are. Left one stands on the land in front of a plane garage around three people and right one in front of other garage stands by to take off. In addition one person who have a note-board and wears a bag, a helmet and etc., looks at the right plane. In top-right corner of the poster, there are two fighter planes flying in the sky.

The woman is depicted in the materials of the circumstance of the airfield, which suggests a strong connection between them. The woman is wearing a blue jacket, hat and a black necktie, which appears her from this uniform - her job and blue is symbol colour of the air force. She gazes at the sky where two planes are flying that reminds she work for the air force. The way that she looks at the sky, giving a long look with a smile, is reminiscent that she is proud of her self working for the air force. The blue colour conveys reader's attention to the two women in the office. Their jobs as telegrapher and typewriting suggest they also work proudly for the air force. Between sky and the office, the fighter plane standing by, indicates that two places, airfield and office, are different places and the two women are in a safe place.

The text at the top of the poster, "Doing a Grand Job!" explains what they are doing within all these elements. The key word of the text, GRAND, suggests that they work but it is not for the money, they have grand jobs for the country. The text at the bottom of the poster, "Join the W.A.A.A.F" conveys the reader to the final aim of this poster. These bold capital letters do not explain what W.A.A.A.F stands for, but the continued sentence, "AND PLAY YOUR PART IN THE BIG TASK AHEAD", suggests that the grand job is your part as telegrapher and typewriting in the 'big task' – not use WAR. Moreover, through the next sentence, "Apply – RAAF recruiting centre or local committee", the poster explains that how apply this grand job.

Therefore, this poster portrays legitimately that women can work for the air force, but not as a solder. Their 'grand' job is supporting the military where men fight. Zwingel (2004, p. 4) states that women's activities that they did for the military, country and family in the war are hardly recognised by men. Furthermore, women's parts do need hard work, so it is indicated as "play" and the "big task" is not women's part. Women just play in the men's war. It still realise that the women did not fight for keeping-peace, they just work for job making money and they are remembered behind men who were at battle field.

In conclusion, during the World War II, there were large numbers of women worked for the air force. Even though their job was not related to participate actively in the warfare, they fought the war indirectly by supporting the military at the base or by doing groundwork or by providing their domestic services to military. However, women were recognised as supporters of men who worked for country. In addition, these jobs were seen as those which were noble and respectable.

Fiske, J. 1990, Introduction to Communication Studies, 2nd edn, Routledge, London.

Jowett, G.S and O'Donnell, V. 1999, Propaganda and Persuasion, 3rd den, Sage Publications, London.

National Foundation for Australian Women 2008, Women's Auxiliary Australian Air Force (WAAAF) (1941 - 1947), National Foundation for Australian Women , viewed 28 April 2008, <>.

Northfield, J. 1942, "Doing a grand job!" Join the W.A.A.A.F, poster, Australian War Memorial, Canberra.

Zwingel, S. 2004, Gendered responsibilities for war and peace. Strategies of political, socio-economic and psychological reconstruction in post-war Germany, American Political Science Association, Chicago, viewed 28 April 2008, <>.

The Significance of YouTube

The new movie, Speed Racer (2008) directed by the Wachowski Brothers, who directed The Matrix trilogy, is coming soon. Well, where will you go to see its trailer? Right, YouTube!

YouTube is one of the video sharing websites based on users' activities, such as uploading, viewing and sharing video clips. This website has opened for approximately three years; however, its results are incredibly success. "In January 2008, nearly 79 million viewers watched more than three billion user-posted videos on YouTube" (Yen 2008, para. 9). This essay will examine this website, focusing on its importance and effects.

Broadcast Yourself
YouTube is simply defined as sharing video clips website, but its contents-videos are not simply defined because of their variety of kinds. Movie trailer (official and fan made), music video (original and user created), fun video (home video and captured TV), promotion video (commercial and non-commercial), accidents (vehicle and autos), news, people, animals, sports, etc., the videos on YouTube are enormous amount of genre. Moreover, the linked videos that related to the video watched by user at the moment lead to user's interests to keep stay in YouTube. The users of YouTube absolutely realise that "Internet video is a powerful medium" (Fyfe 2008, para. 2). Even though all kind of videos are not able to see (because of censorship to protect users' emotion against some videos, such as very strong violence), YouTube has unlimited genre videos. Today, many of users use YouTube as a place of discussion. They show (not write) their opinion and also get the feedback through some people's videos titled "RE:". YouTube's motto, "Broadcast Yourself" could aim this phenomenon. For example, there are so many contents related to sex, but all contents that are written a word "sex" in their title, are not adult videos. Some of them show users' (in this case, 'creators' is correct.) opinions against sex contents. In addition, the creators, who have opposing opinions about sex contents, use half-naked woman photos as the video still on the profile of its video. Ironically, to express (and 'broadcast') against sex contents, the users of opposing opinions use traditional sex contents.

User-Created Content

YouTube has promoted the User-Created Contents that is "one of the main features of the participative web but the participative web is a wider concept and comprises various forms of media and creative works (written, audio, visual and combined) created by Internet and technology users" (OECD 2007, p. 17). The meaning of user on media field in the past was just receiver. However, they are not receiver now in terms of the User-Created Content with Web 2.0 that "aims to facilitate creativity, information sharing, and, most notably, collaboration among users" (Wikipedia 2008, para. 1).

A duo of college students, Anthony Padilla and Ian Hecox, has uploaded their created contents, such as, writing, filming, acting and editing in their own skits and "music videos", by the nickname, Smosh. Their contents make them famous and their channel becomes as the most subscribed by over 336,000 subscribers, as of April 2008. The amount of Smosh's videos, 48, is about one hundred times less than 4,740 videos of Universal Music Group that one of the major music groups. However, Universal Music Group's channel is subscribed by about 269,000 subscribers (YouTube 2008). In this case, the number of these shows what users want to watch is not always big budget videos, and also everybody can be a creator who obtains big buzz.

Time's Person of the Year: You
Time, American weekly news magazine, announced, "Time's person of the year for 2006 is you". According to Time (2006, para. 9), 'you' have seized the reins of the global media, founded and framed the new digital democracy, worked for nothing and beaten the pros at their own game. Who are 'you'? "It's a story about community and collaboration on a scale never seen before. It's about the cosmic compendium of knowledge Wikipedia and the million-channel people's network YouTube and the online metropolis MySpace". Thus, the 'you' is people who create all kinds of media contents that "wrest power from the few and help one another for nothing and how that will not only change the world, but also change the way the world changes" (Time 2006, para. 3). 'You' are not just received the news produced by media; 'you' are media as self production that created own news. Moreover, 'you' are not just watching movies acted by famous actors and actress; 'you' become a hero/heroine in your own movies.

YouTube is a website, composited of video contents that are uploaded, created and shared by users. YouTube's success has realised what contents have moved from passive media, such major newspaper companies and broadcasting stations, to active media, such as fun home videos and showing opinion of one self. Now, the term, 'major powerful media' also has been moved by its amount of 'subscription'.

Fyfe, Kristen 2008, 'YouTube's Great Influence - for Good and for Ill', American Family News Network, 10 April, viewed 23 April 2008, <>.

Grossman, Lev 2006, 'Time's Person of the Year: You', Time, 13 December, viewed 23 April 2008, <,9171,1569514,00.html>.

OECD 2007, Participative Web and User-Created Content - Web 2.0, Wikis and Social Networking, OECD Publications, Paris, viewed 23 April 2008, <>.

Yen, Y.W. 2008, 'YouTube Looks for the Money Clip', Cable News Network, 25 March, viewed 23 April 2008, <>.

YouTube 2008, Most Subscribed, YouTube, viewed 23 April 2008, <>.

Wikipedia 2008, Web 2.0, Wikipedia, viewed 23 April 2008, <>.

Earth Day and Google Logos

Earth Day (22 April) is one of the Google regular days that its logo has changed. To commemorate holidays and events, Google has put logos designed for those days.

Well, who has designed them? Professional designer who occasionally employed by Google, from public subscription or someone who works full time for Google?

The logos are created by Dennis Hwang who is a webmaster of Google and also designs Google special logos, but the work for logos is only 20% job of him.

By the way, I'm so proud of his last name that is the same with my one, Hwang, very unusual Korean name.

THE TICKET is coming soon!

Australia's National Tobacco Campaign

The Australian government has campaigned against cigarette smoking since 2006. This campaign has used strong images, such as mouth cancer and heart disease, on the back side of cigarette packs.

This campaign has succeeded. Through this campaign, many smokers, especially in young smokers, have quit their smoking. However, the images are still argued about because of their strength.

Harvard Style

All the university and college students I have known must prefer Harvard style, even though they have never studied at Harvard University.

The Harvard style doesn't mean a special style of studying. It refers to a citation system which is used for writing, such as, essay and report. The citation system is one of the most important elements of the writing, because it clearly and simply helps readers where sources come from.


Now faith is being sure of what we hope for and certain of what we do not see (Hebrews 11:1)

If you believe that you see, it is just 'knowledge'.
If you want something, you must believe that you will get it.

Do not think what you do not have at the moment.

You Make Me Feel So Young

How can you make me feel better?
You probably have a magic sound of voice.

Even though you are elder than me,
your passion is younger than mine.

But, I will make it better,
because you make me feel so young.

Thanks, Frank!

Marx’s Class Conflict and Titanic

How would have the 20th century of the world developed if Karl Marx (1818-1883) was not born? It could plainly be stated that the history of the 20th century received its basic theories from Marx. Half of all people in the world lived in countries of the 20th century that inherited Marx's theories, for one hundred years after Marx's death. Many people agree that Marx has been one of the most important people who still influence world history. One of Marx's theories on 'class conflict' is an important work, along with the theory 'alienation', because through these theories, Marx explained social theory. This essay will examine the theory of Marx's class conflict, focusing on the presence of inequality and oppression in society, associated with the movie, Titanic (1997).

The theory of class conflict explains the human social history between two classes, the exploiting and the exploited. This social theory, one of the major theories developed by Marx, also founded the basis of communism. According to Marx (1848, chap. 1), "the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles" - This is the common theory of Marxism. This statement explains that all existing circumstances of history have caused class conflict and that history has been improved by class conflicts. The class conflict was explained by Marx and Engels through the book, The Communist Manifesto (1848). They pointed out that classes, such as, freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman, opposed each other. Moreover, their society was obviously divided by classes. There are two classes defined by the ownership of property in the society, one is "the bourgeoisie, who own the factories and corporations and form the ruling class" and another one is "the proletariat, the mass of workers, who [are] exploited by this ruling class (Berger 1982, p. 44)". Marx believed that capitalism, as a socioeconomic system made the classes, which causes internal tension leading to its destruction and resultantly displaced by communism, so communists must promote the destruction and prepare for displacement (Morrow and Torres 1995, p. 121). Marx's view was economic sight. The two classes have interests in common, thus, they are in conflict with those of another class as a whole. This is turn leads to conflict between individual members of different classes (Berger 1982, p. 45). In addition, Marx did not recognise other systems of classification. Through the Marx's view, only the classes between employer and employee are substantial system of classification and others, which classify classes by religion, race, and nation, are not the system. Marx believed the reason being that they are not natural or useful to humans.

The movie, Titanic (1997) is about the sinking of the Titanic, an Olympic-class passenger liner. It is based on real story of the Titanic; more than 1500 people died and only 700 people rescued on its Maiden voyage from England to New York on 15 April, 1912. The main story of this movie is about the love of two passengers- Jack Dawson and Rose DeWitt Bukater - of different social classes. Through their love, this movie conveys the inequality between first-class passengers and third-class passengers.

There are two parties in the Titanic. Under the deck, is allocated to the poorer, third-class passengers. Their party is fabulous – natural, humanistic, and active, so everybody enjoys it. However, on the deck, the party of the first-class passengers is boring – conventional formalities, burdensome protocol, and cheap conversations. Through these parties, the movie portrays first-class passengers as foolish as well as the first-class passengers being 'worldly-minded' people.

The mother of the heroine, Rose DeWitt Bukater, is primarily concerned with her daughter's marriage to Karl- a rich man from the steel industry- in order to sustain their depreciating family. Karl gives a big diamond to Rose DeWitt Bukater in order to interest her mind. Jack Dawson saves Rose's life when Rose attempts suicide, later being invited to a party for first-class passengers. One of the first-class passengers, Molly Brown, previously a poor woman who became rich from the mine industry, introduces the people in the party; Duff Gordon, who earns lots of money from women's flashily and Guggenheim, who travels with his immoral girlfriend. During the party, when the conversation goes to the theory of Freud, psychologist, the shipowner asks, "Who is Freud? Is he a passenger?". This movie portrays the high-class people as foolish people without any 'basic' knowledge.

Although Jack and Rose are of different social classes, they fall in love. Meanwhile, the Titanic collides with an iceberg. During the Titanic’s sinking, the crew lock steel doors under the deck, in order to blockade the path of third-class passengers, who want to get onto lifeboats. The crew also threaten to kill passengers with guns because the priority for boarding life-boats is allocated to first-class passengers. While only one lifeboat remains, the third-class passengers break the barriers and doors, intruding onto the deck. At the same time, a member of ship-crew named Willy kills a third-class passenger then kills himself. The passenger killed was a friend of Jack. Additionally portrayed is a third-class woman, who unable to board a lifeboat, gives her children sleeping pills, further inducing sleep by telling a story. Moreover, Karl- Rose's fiancĂ©- bribes the crew and uses a girl, in tears because she lost her parents, to get on a lifeboat, forcing a third-class passenger out of the boat using an oar.

On the one hand, the shipowner, who does not know Freud, also unfairly gets the lifeboat for women and children. Meanwhile, Willy, the crew-member, looks at him with a mocking laughter and anger, while lowering the boat. The captain, who has administrative responsibilities and experiences, seemed to have plenty of confidence in himself earlier, but later loses his resolve and does not make any order during the two hours of the Titanic's sinking. Showing his role allegorically, he is portrayed to die in the ship’s steering room.

On the other hand, the crew, including Willy, maintain their role aboard until the last moment. In fact, extremely few crew who row life-boats, survive. The members of a string quartet forego personal survival and play music until their death.

The 700 first-class passengers, as the ‘chosen people’ on lifeboats, see the final moments of the Titanic and the other 1500 people, which descend into the North Atlantic Ocean, as despairing third-class passengers. The sinking resulted primarily in the death of women, consisting of 45% in the third-class, 16% in the second-class, with only 3% in the first-class.

In conclusion, the scenes of the Titanic prove that "history is based on unending class conflict (Berger 1982, p. 44)" as Marx stated. This movie conveys that the inequality and unfair treatment between the bourgeoisie and proletariat must be corrected. Maximilian Weber, who was interest in the inequality of Marx's time, defined the class as equivalent to 'life chance' (Bendix 1977, p. 85). The differences between the classes provide value to decisions in the span of human life. The passengers of the Titanic had their destinies decided through classes. The sinking of Titanic, which combined the destiny of survivors with the deceased, proves resolutely that 'class' is indeed, 'life chance'.

Bendix, R. 1977, Max Weber: An Intellectual Portrait, University of California Press, Berkeley.

Berger, A. A. 1982, Media Analysis Techniques, Sage Publications, Beverley Hills.

Marx, K. & Engels, E. 1848, 'Bourgeois and Proletarians', Manifesto of the Communist Party, viewed 1 April 2008, <>.

Morrow, R. A. & Torres, C. A. 1995, Social Theory and Education: A Critique of Theories of Social and Cultural Reproduction, State University of New York Press, Albany.

Kappelman, T. 1998, Titanic: A Critical Appraisal
, viewed 1 April 2008, <

Phillips, D. W. 2007, The Titanic Numbers Games, viewed 1 April 2008, <

Wikipedia 2008, Class conflict, viewed 1 April 2008, <>.

Wikipedia 2008, Marxism, viewed 1 April 2008, <>.

Wikipedia 2008, Max Weber, viewed 1 April 2008, <>.

Workers World 2008, Marx and 'Titanic', viewed 1 April 2008, <>.

Earth Hour 2008

See your world in a whole new light

Earth Hour is the time to show that
it is possible to take action on global warming

Turn off all lights

8 - 9pm, Saturday, March 29, 2008

Everywhere on earth

All people on earth

To send a powerful message that the people
of the world care about the future of the planet

The Family of Four with a Pet

One father, one mother, two children and one pet

These members could make the ideal composition of a family. However, if some family doesn't have these members, the family is NOT the ideal?

Although this is one picture, it would make some sensitive issue. This picture seems to be drawn by the hand in order to contact with children's eyes, but some children who don't have this composition would think there is something strange about their family - what missing or adding.

The term 'ideal' is probably derived from the common sense recognising as perfection, but should consider that the common sense isn't always the best before using it.

The First Step for the Good Presentation

"They hear and they forget.
They see and they remember.
They do and they learn."

It may be difficult to define what the good presentation is. But almost people who have experienced could remember which presentation was good or bad.

Well, let's go back to the first presentation! Even though each one has each problem, the same thing everyone agrees is what we have always forgotten is what we have already known.

Now, it is time to move on your good presentation with the first step, audience involvement.

The Introduction of iPod nano in 2005

This presentation has still impressed me when Steve took iPod nano out of his pocket. It could compare with the scene, someone kept off the skull, in the beginning of the Terminator 2: Judgment Day.

Good Job, Steve Jobs!

Semiotics and LG Air Conditioner Advertisement

Ferdinand de Saussure (1857 – 1913), the father of modern linguistics, stated "language is made up of signs (like words) which communicate meanings and that all kinds of other things which communicate meanings could potentially be studied in the same way as linguistic signs" (Bignell 1997, p. 5). In his view, the linguistic sign is arbitrary. That means the linguistic sign has no connection and is related to other arbitrary signs. Bignell (1997, p. 8) explains this arbitrariness as each linguistic sign has a particular position in the structure of language (langue) and the elements of real expression - speech or writing (parole) - work in the structure. From these ideas, the 'chess', for example, is composed of two elements. One is "the system of rules and conventions called chess" and the other one is "the particular moves made in an actual game of chess" (Bignell 1997, p. 8).

Through his best-known book, Course in General Linguistics (1915), he also demonstrated that language could be analysed as a formal system of elements, including the notion of the linguistic sign, the signifier, the signified, and the referent. According to Bignell (1997, pp. 11-12), the 'signifier' is the vehicle which expresses the sign, the 'signified' is the concept which the signifier represents, and the 'referent' is the actual things which signs refer to. For example, the word 'open' (sign) on a shop door is expressed by the letters (signifier) 'o', 'p', 'e', and 'n'. These letters call up the concept (signified) that the shop is open for business, and then the real markets (referent) can be imaged (Chandler 2006, para. 5).

However, these elements could not be always recognised the same consequence between writer and reader. According to Fiske (1990, p. 85), there is "meaning as being a process of negotiation" in the signs. Thus, "the fact that the same sentence" may not convey the same meaning to every reader in different situations or experiences. This idea was analysed by Roland Barthes. In Barthes's theory, "the idea of two orders of signification", denotation and connotation; Denotation is description of obvious meaning of the sigh from referring to the common-sense. Connotation is the interaction that occurs when the sign meets the feelings or emotions of the users and the values of their culture (Fiske 1990, pp. 85-86). Barthes (1977, pp, 15-31, 32-51) argued that "in photography connotation can be (analytically) distinguished from denotation". As Fiske (1990, p. 86) puts it "denotation is what is photographed, connotation is how it is photographed".

One of the LG air conditioner advertisements is here as an example of these two orders of signification.

In the left of the image is a man, standing outside, wearing an overcoat with a hood and holding what appears to be a bar. In the right of the image, behind the man, there is a small round house built from blocks of hard snow. The man is surrounded by what appears to be cold area.

The man is depicted in the materials of the circumstance of the area with snow, which suggests a strong connection between them. The man is wearing an overcoat with a hood, which protects him from the cold, and covered with snow, as he is in the very cold area. He is holding a bar, which from the length of his forehead, it is recognised his instrument as weapon. The way that he holds the bar, with in an upright position, suggesting he defends his possession against something. This idea is supported by his strong and steady face in the hood, suggesting he has nothing to change his mind to protect it. The small round house on the area covered with snow, reinforces this reading, with the house built from blocks of hard snow and the cobalt-blue sky conveying the idea that the area is very cold – could be the world's coldest area, and the house is realised as his possession.

The text at the top of the advertisement seems to bring not relative words; LG has an air conditioner for everyone, with the man and house, but the next text under the text at top, Well, almost, brings the conclusion of this idea, additionally text, No. 1 with stars at the bottom of the advertisement. The strong faced man, the house, and the connoted meanings all together to convey the message that LG’s market areas of air conditioner are world widely spread - well, almost - and LG may also has an air conditioner for the man who lives in the world's coldest area. However, by his pride, as he does not need an air conditioner, LG has air conditioners for 'almost' people. Moreover, these elements are associated with the circumstance to operate the air conditioner; the hot climate needs the air conditioner and makes people want something cool and desire to live where the man live in.

Barthes, R. 1977, Image-Music-Text, Fontana, London.

Bignell, J. 1997, Media Semiotics: An Introduction, Manchester University Press, Manchester.

Chandler, D. 2006, 'Signs', Semiotics for Beginners, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, viewed 17 March 2008, <

Fiske, J. 1990, Introduction to Communication Studies, 2nd edn, Routledge, London.

Knockin' on Toilet Door

In this film, Knockin' on Toilet Door, a young man has been waiting for a long time - 2 years - to use his toilet, because his girlfriend has been using it. During the waiting time, he has to use other toilets, neighbours' or friends' one. He, who can't always expect when he needs to go to the toilet, has knocked at the toilet door and asked her everyday to come out of the toilet. However, he can get only her reply, "Maybe tomorrow".

This story doesn't make any sense?
Oh, should add "Inspired by a True Story: Woman Sat on Toilet for 2 Years".

He is not legend now.

The conclusion of movies is the most important scene. It is something their audience remember as long as they can do it. Some of movies which attracted so much before showing made the audience disappointed because of nonsense ending rather than its whole story.

Here, there is an evidence why ending of a movie is the most important. One of the movies in 2007, I am legend, had attracted many audience since before showing. Because its original story has come from the famous novel of the same name in 1954, but many audience disappointed. Even though they expected better story work rather than the novel's one, visual expectations also affected to them.

However, the filmmakers made a decision to alternate their ending. This alternative ending is close to the original novel. Moreover, people, who want to keep this movie as a DVD at their own shelf, will be able to do from 18 March, 2008.

All right, just watch the alternative ending, if it is no problem to know it.

Now, we are not alone, he is also not legend anymore.